# Vocabulary/hat

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`^ y`Exponential

Rank 0 *-- operates on individual atoms of y, producing a result of the same shape --*
WHY IS THIS IMPORTANT?

*e ^{y}*, the

`y`

*-th power*of the mathematical constant:

*e*.

The *antilogarithm* of a natural logarithm.

^1 2.71828 ^2 7.38906 ^ ^. 123.45 123.45

### Related Primitives

Logarithm (`^. y`)

### Use These Combinations

Combinations using `^ y` that have exceptionally good performance include:

**What it does****Type;**

**Precisions;**

Ranks**Syntax****Variants;**

**Restrictions****Benefits;**

**Bug Warnings***e*^{πy}`^@o. y`handles large values of `y`

`x ^ y`Power

Rank 0 0 *-- operates on individual atoms of x and y, producing a result of the same shape --*
WHY IS THIS IMPORTANT?

*x ^{y}*, the

`y`

*-th power*of numeric noun:

`x`.

2^8 256

### Related Primitives

Logarithm (`x ^. y`)

### Details

1. Some results are defined in J that are often left undefined:

- 0 ^ 0 = 1
- _ ^ 0 = 1
- 1 ^ _ = 1

2. Taking a rational power of an extended integer produces a floating-point result whenever the denominator of the power is not 1.

### Use These Combinations

Combinations using `x ^ y` that have exceptionally good performance include:

**What it does****Type;**

**Precisions;**

Ranks**Syntax****Variants;**

**Restrictions****Benefits;**

**Bug Warnings**Integer powers non-complex `x`, integer`y``x ^ y`Uses repeated multiplication (avoids log) Powers mod(m) integer, extended integer `x m&|@^ y`

`m&|@(n&^) y`Avoids the large result of exponentiation

`x ^!.p y`Stope Function

Rank 0 0 *-- operates on individual atoms of x and y, producing a result of the same shape --*
WHY IS THIS IMPORTANT?

`x ^!.p y` is `x*(x+p)*(x+2*p)*...` for `y` terms.

5 ^!.1 (3) NB. 5 * 6 * 7 210

### Common Uses

1. Calculate the number of permutations of `x` things taken `y` at a time, _{x}P_{y}

5 ^!._1 (3) NB. 5 * 4 * 3 60

2. Calculate the *rising Pochhammer symbol (x) _{y}* as used in the hypergeometric function

5.1 ^!.1 (3) NB. 5.1 * 6.1 * 7.1 220.881

### More Information

1. `y` must be nonnegative and tolerantly equal to an integer.

2. `x ^!.p y` is the same as `*/x + p*i. y` .