# Phrases/PrimitiveImplementations

# Implementation of Certain J Primitives

Some of J primitives are not exactly primitive. Some of them contain bugs, shortcomings and concious trade-offs. Some are not implemented for all arguments.

This page contains definitions, reference implementations or suggested behavior for currenly unimplemented domains for such "primitives".

## %: Dyadic, extended

See Essays/IntRoot

## A. Dyadic

According to R.Hui:

type =: 3!:0 boxed =: 32&=@type pind =: ]`]`+@.(*@])"0 pfill =: [ ((i.@[-.]) , ]) pind ord =: >:@(>./) base =: >:@i.@-@# rfd =: +/@({.>}.)\. dfr =: /:^:2@,/ adot1 =: (base #. rfd)@((ord pfill ])`C.@.boxed) " 1 adot2 =: dfr@(base@] #: [) { ]

See also

## ? Monadic, Extended

As of J601βn `?` applied to on large right arguments yields domain error.

?2^31 |domain error | ?2^31 ?_1+2^31 2094548590

The workaround is to use the following verb, which generates a uniformaly distributed random number in the range `0`..`_1+y.` for arbitrary large `y.` (under assumption that the result of underlying primitive `?` is itself uniformly distributed).

dice=: 9999&$: : (4 : 0)"0 y=. x #.^:_1 y-1 label_again. l=.y =&{. r=.?1+{.y while. l *. r<&#y do. if. d>f=.y{~_1+#r=.r,d=.?x do. goto_again. end. l=.d=f end. x #. r,?x#~y-&#r )

Optional left argument specifies chunk size and can be selected to tweak performance.

- It turns out that optimum for large numbers is achieved with 9999 as left argument, which is quite surprising. -- Andrew Nikitin <<DateTime(2006-06-17T04:03:09Z)>>

## Comparisons of non-numeric atoms

J signals domain error if you try to compare character or boxed data with `<` etc. At the same time `/:` primitive is somehow capable of comparing nonnumerics in order to grade them.
The following adverb unearthes this algorithm.

ue=:1 : ('u';':';'x u&((/:~x,y)&i.) y') ("0) 'a' <ue 'b' 1 'b' <ue 'b' 0 (<'aardvark') >:ue <'aachen' 1

Roger once gave the reason that `/: \:` can sort any data, but `< <: = ~: >: >` can only compare numerics. If you need to compare non-numeric atoms (or items), you may find useful these generalized replacements for the comparison dyads.

Contributed by Andrew Nikitin