Puzzles/Div9

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Find a 9-digit number a_1a_2\dots a_9, containing all the digits 1,2,...,9, such that k divides a_1a_2\dots a_k for each k=1,2,\dots 9.

Solution

Since 5 divides a_1a_2a_3a_4a_5, a_5 must be 5. Similarly a_k must be even for even k and by elimination a_1, a_3, a_7 and a_9 must be the remaining digits 1, 3, 7 and 9 in some order. Candidate solutions thus have the form oeoe5eoeo where o=odd, e=even.

From this point it's not too difficult to reduce the candidates to a unique solution; here is how one might use J:

   oe=: (i.24)&A.&> 1 3 7 9; 2 4 6 8   NB. permuted odds and evens
   a0=: 5 ,. ,/ ,"1// oe               NB. proto-candidates (5ooooeeee)
   a =: 1 5 2 6 0 7 3 8 4 {"1 a0       NB. candidates (oeoe5eoeo)
   ok=: 0 = (# | 10&#.)\"1 a           NB. 0 remainders in all prefixes
   (*./"1 ok) # a                      NB. solution
3 8 1 6 5 4 7 2 9

Still using the same oeoe5eoeo idea, but building the solution one column at time:

   nd    =: 0 1 0 1 2 1 0 1 0 { 1 3 7 9 ; 2 4 6 8 ; ,5
   ext   =:  [: ,/ ] ,."2 0 {:@$ {:: nd"_
   ok    =: *./@~:"1 *. 0: = {:@$ | 10&#.
   extend=: (ok # ]) @ ext

   extend^:9 i.1 0
3 8 1 6 5 4 7 2 9

Initially, there is 1 solution of 0 columns. i{::nd are the digits to use when the current solution has i columns, and ext appends each of these digits to each row of the current solution. ok indicates the valid rows -- unique digits and divisible by i+1 .

The method keeps the number of rows small, and therefore might be the method to use if one were to solve the problem by hand (with only pencil and paper).

   3 : '# extend^:y i.1 0'"0 i.10
1 4 16 20 30 30 20 8 1 1



Contributed by Roger Hui and Ewart Shaw.